The European junior champion produced an impressive display in the final, having qualified fifth from morning’s preliminary round.
The 16-year-old was only beaten by China’s Lian Junjie and Russia’s Nikita Shleikher in Kazan.
Junjie was well ahead of the rest, scoring 593.55 points, with Shleikher finishing with 573.80.
Dixon scored 545.60, which was just 0.15 points ahead of his Great Britain team-mate Matty Lee in fourth, with China’s Tai Xiaohu fifth.
The previous day, Dixon’s cousin Shanice Lobb just missed out on reaching the girls’ A platform final.
Lobb, who has recently moved to London, finished 13th out of the 25 divers with only the top 12 progressing. She missed out by just two points.
Her Great Britain team-mate Lois Toulson, who is Tonia Couch’s synchro partner, did reach the final and won silver.