Couch and her new diving partner Lois Toulson had won a synchro silver at the opening leg in Beijing the previous week and Daley and Goodfellow had claimed a bronze in the Chinese capital.
However, it was role reversal in Dubai, with Daley and Goodfellow finishing second and Couch and Toulson third.
Daley and Plymouth Diving’s Goodfellow were only beaten by China’s Aisen Chen and Yue Lin. The Chinese duo were well ahead of the field, scoring a stunning 466.50 points.
Daley and Goodfellow collected 428.91, which was nine points ahead of American’s David Boudia and Steele Johnson in third with 419.88.
Couch and Leeds teenager Toulson scored 311.76 points to finished behind China’s Huixia Liu and Yajie Si (333.24) and Canada’s highly experienced pair of Meaghan Benfeito and Roseline Filion (326.58).
Daley and Couch will compete in the individual events. The women’s competition is on Friday and the men’s on Saturday.
The World Series then takes a break until April when it will move to Windsor in Canada and then Kazan in Russia.