The pair took bronze – just like they did at last summer’s Olympic Games – in the men’s 10m synchro competition.
Daley and Goodfellow scored 406.38 points to finish behind China’s Aisen Chen and Hao Yang and Germany’s highly-experienced pair of Patrick Hausding and Sascha Klein.
Chen and Yang were well clear of the rest of the field, scoring 462.57 points, with Hausding and Klein finishing on 408.54 and Daley and Goodfellow on 406.38.
Daley and Goodfellow had been in second place going into the final round, but they could not quite nail their back three-and-a-half somersault pike dive, scoring 71.28 points for it.
Daley, who won individual medals at the Beijing and Guangzhou legs of the World Series, still has two more chances to add to his collection in Kazan.
On Sunday, he will compete in the individual platform event and also the mixed three-metre synchro competition with Grace Reid.
Meanwhile, there was disappointment for Plymouth’s Tonia Couch and her dive partner Lois Toulson in the women’s 10m synchro competition.
The pair had to settle for fifth place in a low-scoring competition with 269.58 points.
They had also finished fifth at the Beijing and Guangzhou legs of the series but with much higher points.
China’s Qian Ren and Yajie Si won Friday’s competition with 328.20 points, with Canada’s Meaghan Benfeito and Caeli McKay second on 291.06 and Russia’s Iuliia Timoshinina and Valeriia Belova third with a score of 284.76.
In the previous two legs, all the medallists had scored more than 300 points.