Dixon produced an impressive display in the final to collect gold ahead of his Great Britain team-mate Noah Williams, who was second, and Australia’s Brodie Scapens, who took bronze.
The Plymouth star, who competed at the 2014 Commonwealth Games, scored 525.40 points, with Williams finishing with 502.15.
Dixon’s gold medal followed on from bronze medals for fellow Plymouth divers Kayleigh Sinclair, Victoria Vincent and Alfie Brown.
Sinclair took third in the girls’ A three-metre event behind Canada’s Olivia Chamandy and Russia’s Ekaterina Nekrasova.
Vincent took bronze in the girls’ B three-metre. She was just edged out by USA divers Maria Coburn and Bridget O’Neil.
In the boys’ B three-metre, Brown collected bronze behind Russia’s Rusian Ternovi and Ukraine’s Nikita Kryvopyshyn.