The Great Britain veteran international triumphed in the over-50s 1,500m at the Alexander Stadium in a time of four minutes and 21.19 seconds.
Anderson, a coach at City of Plymouth, was more than four seconds in front of the second-placed athlete, Robert Andrew.
He almost completed a middle distance double, but was just edged out for the 800m title by Andrew, who won the two-lap event by just 0.4 seconds.
Anderson’s success came on the same weekend as club colleagues David King and James Arnott impressed at the Anniversary Games in London and Travis Bramley won the British Youth Triathlon Championship title.
Sprint hurdler King, 21, was the first City of Plymouth athlete to compete at an IAAF Diamond League meeting, while 18-year-old Arnott claimed a silver medal and a PB in the 100m at the IPC Grand Prix two days later.
Club coach Steve Endacott admitted seeing King and Arnott competing on one of the biggest stages in the world and live on television was special.
“It was brilliant,” he said. “I have been involved with both of them, so I was really proud.
“David got there on merit and we always knew James was going to get where he’s got to as he wanted it so badly.”
Endacott believes King and Arnott are only going to get better as they move fully into the senior ranks from under-23 level.