Hulme missed out by just one hundredth of a second in the first session of the championships this morning.
He clocked a time of 56.14 seconds to be ranked 17th from all seven heats, with only the top 16 progressing.
Czech Republic’s Tomas Franta claimed the final spot in the semis with 56.13.
It was Hulme’s second heartbreak in the 100m backstroke event at international level this year, having missed out on a medal at the European Games by two hundredths of a second.
Hulme’s Great Britain team-mate and European Games champion Luke Greenbank did progress in Singapore. He was ranked eighth after the heats with 55.54.
Leander star Hulme will be back in the pool tomorrow morning when he competes in the 200m IM.
Meanwhile, fellow Plymouth swimmer Laura Stephens missed out on progressing in the women’s 100m backstroke.
Stephens clocked a time of 1:04.83 to finish 24th in the highly-competitive event in Singapore.
She will also swim again tomorrow when she takes part in the 200m butterfly competition.